By Jay Acunzo published June 1, 2015

A Crash Course in Narrative Podcasting (And Why You Should Create Them)

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One of my favorite analogies I use to describe great content marketing involves the movie The Matrix. (Don’t worry, I mean the first one – not the so-so second or the can’t-believe-I-paid-for-this-crap third.)

Throughout the film, Neo gets pushed and poked and prodded to do great things by Morpheus. At first, however, Neo can’t do much of anything. Although he tries his best, he just ends up looking confused, scared, and generally despondent … which, if we’re being honest with ourselves, is a pretty accurate description of many of us when faced with the breakneck rate of change in our industry.

Take, for instance, the suddenly ubiquitous idea of podcasting. We all know that podcasting is exploding right now (along with the phrase “podcasting is exploding right now”). As yet another trend begins to dominate the content marketing zeitgeist, it’s easy for us to feel like Neo – jolted awake from what we believed to be the marketing reality around us, left feeling lost and confused once again.

It’s enough to make even the most confident among us go all Keanu:

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Where does this end? Potentially, another terrible movie (i.e., more crap content). But there’s hope if we know how to approach this stuff. If you’ve seen the movie, you know that by the end, Neo is practically a superhero, possessing massive power over the world around him.

Why? What changes?

Essentially, he’s suddenly able to see the world for what it is – a sum of thousands of moving parts and pieces that combine to create the Matrix. Neo understands what’s behind the scenes rather than accepting the false reality immediately in front of him. Once he understands that, everything gets simpler. He goes from frustrated and borderline petulant to calm, cool, collected, and in total control.

THAT is podcasting. Hell, that’s all of content marketing. Those who do this stuff insanely well understand how all the many pieces fit together to form a viable strategy and editorial calendar that sustain and generate results. When you approach and learn it that way, it suddenly slows down and makes way more sense. You’re in control. The content universe is yours to command. Bring it.

Keanu-image 2

Since we aren’t actually in The Matrix (which is a profoundly good thing when you consider how awful I’d look in skin-tight leather), it’s worth taking a moment to discuss the small moving pieces that make up great podcasting.

Below, I go behind the scenes of a process that you can use when launching a podcast – specifically, a narrative podcast. I focus on the production process rather than distribution.

The what and why of narrative podcasts

Narrative podcasts are story-driven shows, as opposed to interviews or game-show-like recordings. They rely on heavy editing to splice together the right story, pulling from interviews and other recordings, sounds, and music. Many feature a host who narrates the story, almost as if everything else happened in the past.

NPR is, of course, the gold standard here, though narrative podcasts can run the gamut in terms of tone. I can share this particular process thanks to my producing and hosting a new show called Traction for my firm, NextView Ventures. As we are a venture capital firm, the stories we tell are less ethereal than those on NPR, but narrative podcasting is still very much an option for us.That’s a long way of saying: Those who dislike NPR should still consider this a great way to tell stories.

So why are narrative podcasts so great? In addition to sounding wonderful because the focus is more on storytelling than pontificating, this style is perfect for all three groups involved in a typical show production.

Brand/host/producer: You’re in total control of the final product. You can stand out by making your show sound different than the rest, and you don’t need to rely on a guest sounding pithy or engaging all in one take.

Your guests: They can relax knowing that editing can make them sound great. They can pause to think, speak naturally with ums and uhs, and even ask to redo answers. It’s about getting the best quote recorded, not the best end-to-end conversation. (If they ramble, for instance, that doesn’t derail your show as it would in other formats. You can simply lift out the best content.)

Listeners: They stand a greater chance of sticking around to enjoy the show. Podcasts are a linear medium. They experience a podcast from start to finish. In a written article, you can introduce all kinds of other stimuli on one page – images and graphics, embedded videos and audio, calls to action in dozens of forms, and more. As of today, little technology exists to change the way we consume podcasts. So narrative storytelling addresses the ONE thing you need to worry about as a producer: listener drop-off. Can you get listeners to the end? Can you maximize the time spent listening, not just optimize the vanity metric of downloads? Stories are built to do that.

How to create a narrative podcast

If you’re like me, you’re not formally trained in radio production nor do you have a budget to make others in the industry blush.

So, here’s a lean process you can use that won’t cost more than $200 to $300, but requires some (smart) elbow grease.

Pre-production

  1. Select your equipment.

For me, that means:

  • Two Shure SM58 microphones ($99 each) with foam windscreens ($2) to soften certain sounds, like the pronunciation of hard Ps, that could sound harsh or loud.
  • A mixer. I bought a simple Alesis MultiMix with four microphone inputs just in case I need that many. I typically use two. A mixer allows you to use multiple microphones for better in-person audio, as well as adjust certain aspects of each individual’s sound.
  • Recording and editing software. I use Apple’s GarageBand (available for PCs too) unless I’m doing a Skype call, at which point I use a plug-in from Ecamm to record and import into GarageBand. (Note: If you use GarageBand to record, save often. If you use it for editing, export the entire recording to iTunes first to preserve a backup before you start editing.)
  • Music: Try the amazing Marmoset for a huge library of searchable, filterable, use-however-you-want songs.
  1. Research and draft your questions.

Much digital ink has been spilled on this, so I’ll refer you to Copyblogger’s great post on podcast preparation.

Bottom line: Over-prepare, always.

  1. Send your questions and give context to your guest ahead of time

It’s incredibly helpful to pre-wire guests by sending a PDF with basic information about the show, as well as your specific questions.

For NextView’s podcast, our PDF contains four sections:

  • Context on the show – I include links to our channels as well as basic notes like “please book a small room to help with echoes.” I introduce our narrative style and reassure the subjects that the interview will be easier as a result.
  • Two sets of questions – We use a set unique to the episode and a set of recurring questions. Some recurring questions are favorites that help get great quotes. Listeners never know that I’m asking the same questions because I delete the question in editing. But I also end each show with the same series of three personal questions called “Alpha, Beta, Scale.” (By the way, this is an example of using segments in your content, or small subsections or callouts that hold or direct attention.)
  • Thank-you note – It’s the right thing to do since the individuals are taking valuable time out of their day and trusting us to tell their story publicly.

You’re now ready to record your narrative podcast.

In production

If you’ve completed the pre-production steps, this part should be the easiest of the process. To keep things brief, here are a few reminders:

  1. Tune your volume … and your guest … to your liking.

As the producer or host, it’s your job to make your guest feel comfortable, and it’s your job to ensure the final episode is great. If you don’t like the answers or the episode, it’s your fault, not the guest’s (hence the importance of both pre-production research and post-production editing).

Once I’ve thanked a guest for spending time with me and finished any (non-forced) small talk, I do three things:

  • First, I explain the show by reiterating the notes from the PDF I sent. Specifically, I describe how the style of the show lets them pause to think, redo answers, and so forth. That puts them at ease.
  • Second, I have them identify themselves so I get that quote recorded.
  • Third, I ask every guest the same question: “Do you have any pets?”

Even though I remove this question later, I find that it causes people to relax, smile, or laugh, and start raving about their favorite pet. (If they don’t have any, I ask why, and if they ever did or ever will.) You can practically HEAR someone smiling on a podcast so this creates that tone while preventing guests from launching into their overly formal radio voice.

  1. Interview your guest(s).

Lean on your research but don’t get overly wedded to it. It definitely helps to have at least some experience, particularly as a journalist, conducting interviews. You need to roll with what they say, pursuing interesting stories off script and using follow-up questions to get better answers if they’re being vague or omitting details.

Editing/post-production

This is where the narrative-style show truly breaks from the more common or basic interview that you execute and publish.

After you finish recording, you have this amorphous lump of audio to whittle into a meaningful story.

The editing process for the show looks roughly like this:

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More specifically, here’s what you’re doing as shown in GarageBand:

You start with 100% of the raw audio. (With me so far? See? This can be easy.)

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Be sure to save an extra copy as a backup.

Next, time-stamp the best parts of the audio while cropping out (deleting) the rest.

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As you listen to the recording, you want to identify the best quotes from the show. I find it’s easiest to crop as you go and rename each section, along these lines:

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At this point, while you listen and time-stamp/crop, you’re thinking about the end story because you’re hearing the material you’re molding into that narrative.

This step makes the next part easier.

Write your script.

Yes, you should write a script. I don’t know about you, but the podcasts that make my skin crawl usually have a host stumbling around going, “So, um, so YEAH! Let’s get started. Um … let’s see.” There’s no room for that in a narrative-driven episode, so your script puts the polish on the disconnected audio snippets.

Because I know the quotes with which I have to work, my writing looks something like this example, which is pulled from our episode with the co-founder and CMO of NatureBox. I bold the names of an audio snippet to play at that point in the script. I use capital letters and ellipses to signal where I should emphasize a word or pause for effect.

Hey there, I’m Jay Acunzo, and I’d like you to imagine that THIS was the next item on your to-do list.

Quote: “Can’t touch it or taste it and never heard of the brand”

…. NOTHING. That’s your food brand. Go try to get people to buy it.

Sound like your idea of a fun weekend?

Fade in intro music.

Well … for Ken Chen and Gautam Gupta, that’s exactly where they began the journey that would lead them to launch NATUREBOX, a well-funded and well-LIKED startup selling healthy snacks to consumers everywhere.

This script helps me add the narration that’s so important to these shows. I recorded this on a second audio track to avoid accidentally overwriting the other audio and to better manipulate things like volume.

A quick word on hosting and scripting this kind of podcast: A great host, in this case, isn’t overly present. The host is not the driver of the story but rather the listener’s guide to it. The host is on the sidelines, next to the listener, pointing out stuff that’s interesting.

Here’s what the audio looks like for this part. Note the second layer containing the narration:

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When you’re done with this step, you effectively have an episode that you could publish. But there’s one more magic element to great narrative shows – music.

Finally, add your music or other sound effects.

As you follow these steps, you’ll start to hear where music could be an asset. There are a few common reasons to add a song, instrumental track, or sound effect:

  • To highlight transitions between stories or points being made – For instance, in one episode of Traction, my colleague Lee Hower describes what it was like to work for tech industry titans Elon Musk and Reid Hoffman at PayPal and LinkedIn. When he says the word Elon, I start playing one track softly in the background, fading out a few seconds later. When he says the word Reid, I wanted to call the listeners’ attention to the shift in the story and remind them to keep listening, so I played a different song.

  • To snap a listener to attention – I hinted at this earlier, but there are times when starting or stopping a song abruptly can prompt your audience to snap awake and continue listening to the show. Remember, as a linear medium, you need to be thinking about listener drop-off at all times.

For example, if your guest says the word “boom,” you could play a track softly during the story leading up to that word before abruptly cutting off the song right at that word.

  • To introduce sections of your show – Intro music is an obvious example, but there are other ways to do this. Maybe you do a listener-email segment or a Top 5 list in each episode. Playing the same music leading into each segment tells the listeners that something different is happening – and recurring listeners learn to anticipate the goodness that’s coming upon hearing the music.

Ex-NPR star and Gimlet Media founder Alex Blumberg uses music to differentiate between sponsors and the rest of his show StartUp. He plays special sponsor music in the background of the ad and then plays the first few seconds of his show’s theme to return from commercial.

The list of use cases for music rolls on, as does your podcast in your listener’s ears … if you edit well.

(By the way, you should definitely check out Blumberg’s tremendous talk about podcasts. Marketers will also be fascinated to hear how they mismanaged native advertising and recovered from it. Note that I have no affiliation with his company. Just admiration.)

Take the blue or red pill?

Creating narrative podcasts is unquestionably harder than simply recording an interview and uploading it as is. However, like Neo, we face a choice – take the blue pill and remain complacent and ignorant or take the red pill, face the challenge, and fight to learn the truth about this Matrix that is podcasting.

Do we churn out more “stuff” like many did during the early waves of blogging adoption, or do we push ourselves to understand how to produce great shows?

My advice? Take the red pill. I promise you, once your audience hears your amazing podcast, it’ll be their turn to act like Neo:

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Trying to figure out podcasts and what’s the right mix for your content marketing? Learn which tactics your peers are turning to for more effective content marketing creation and delivery. Read CMI’s e-book, Building the Perfect Content Marketing Mix: Execution Tactics.

Cover image by Joseph Kalinowski/Content Marketing Institute

Please note:  All tools included in our blog posts are suggested by authors, not the CMI editorial team.  No one post can provide all relevant tools in the space. Feel free to include additional tools in the comments (from your company or ones that you have used).

Author: Jay Acunzo

Jay Acunzo is the VP of platform and content at NextView Ventures, a seed-stage VC firm investing in tech startups. For the firm, he runs the blog the View From Seed and the podcast Traction, among other initiatives dedicated to supporting early-stage entrepreneurship. Jay is also a co-founder of Boston Content, a local community helping over 1,000 content marketers. He's led content at HubSpot (IPO) and Dailybreak Media (acquired) and began as a digital media strategist at Google. Find him @jayacunzo or via SorryForMarketing.com.

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  • http://www.contentchampion.com/ Loz James

    Excellent post Jay

    I used to be a broadcast journalist and the process you’ve outlined is similar to creating what they call ‘packages’ in the radio industry.

    They are pretty labour intensive but the results are definitely worth it – especially if you have a strong and well researched line of argument and great guests – plus other sources of audio such as cutaways, music and SFX etc.

    Great walk through :-)

    Cheers

    Loz

    • http://sorryformarketing.com Jay Acunzo

      Thanks Loz! I’d love to know what you picked up from your days in broadcast journalism that I missed or could improve above. This is my duct tape approach, as is most production work in content marketing I suppose. Any polish or tools you’d suggest?

      • http://www.contentchampion.com/ Loz James

        Hi Jay

        What I’d add here is in the preparation stage. As well as just researching and formulating the right questions for your guests – it can be useful to create a simple written storyline or narrative outline (much like you’d do for a screen or audio play or production), so it’s easier after you’ve got all your audio to fit various quotes, SFX and music with your line of argument or overarching narrative structure.

        In this way your whole production will be tighter, because you can ‘get in and out’ quicker when making specific points. I’ve heard these types of podcast work really well when staying on (strategic) message – but not so well when they lose their way.

        As with a having a documented content marketing strategy – in this context, documenting your key narrative and messaging also helps you to better source experts to interview – and will by extension inform the questions you ask them.

        From my experience the whole finished production benefits as a result.

        BTW – this way of working really helps in radio stations – as often the story package you’ve been sent out to cover is already being advertised on other shows before you’ve even recorded it (no pressure!). So having this clarity really streamlines the whole process and helps everyone to know what’s coming, (also useful for content planning in larger organisations).

        Thanks again :-)

        Cheers

        Loz

        • http://sorryformarketing.com Jay Acunzo

          Thanks Loz, great stuff. I definitely skipped the prep part due to so much advice already existing (linked to Copyblogger’s above). But 100% agreed.

  • http://www.sethprice.net/ Seth Price

    Jay, awesome post, love how you break down the process of creating narrative through to the editing process. Certainly not as easy as straight blogging to craft a beautiful story. Thanks for sharing

    • http://sorryformarketing.com Jay Acunzo

      Thanks Seth, from one new podcaster to another 😉

  • Donielle Buie

    Thanks, Jay! This is a great article and helps to “demystify” the process for this type of podcast. I am planning to launch a new show later this month and hadn’t considered this format. Question: How much time (on average) would you set aside for each episode? I also have a blog to update and plan to have a weekly podcast.

    Thanks!
    Donielle

    • http://sorryformarketing.com Jay Acunzo

      Thanks Donielle! Like any type of content, it’s just a container and so can take any amount of time (blog posts can be 30 min or 30 days, right?). For me personally, I’ve limited myself to the following:
      – 60 min recordings/interviews
      – 60 min of playing it all back to time stamp/crop
      – 4-5 hours of post-production (narration, adding music, et al)
      – 4-5 hours of “merchandising” that episode (a term that Jay Baer uses and I love — creating design assets, like share graphics, as well as related content to promote the show, like blog posts or infographics or SlideShares.

      This is an IDEAL situation. In general, two full work days are required for me to do 1 episode and feel great about it. But…I’m only 3 episodes in. Hoping I get better 😉

      • Donielle Buie

        Thanks, Jay! It’s helpful to see this broken down. Also, I like that you noted the merchandising time because it’s easy to overlook how much additional time that takes.

        Appreciate your response here. Good luck! I am looking forward to checking out the show.

  • http://newrisedigital.com/ NewRiseDigital

    Great article Jay, podcasting is definitely making a second rise and it’s the next big opportunity for content marketers for sure. We’re about to launch our new podcast at http://podcastpowermarketing.com to help content marketers launch and improve their brand podcasts. If you’ve already got a podcast and want an easy way to put the final polish on your mix, check out ‘The Levelator’ which is nothing short of magic (it’s no longer developed but still available to download free from http://web.archive.org/web/20130729204551id_/http://www.conversationsnetwork.org/levelator/)

  • rogercparker

    Dear Jay:
    This is a real eye-opener. I thought that the hard part was choosing topics and preparing questions prior to a recorded interview (or preparing handouts and note-taking sheets for attendees). You’ve provided an entirely different perspective.

    You also sparked a new way to repurpose the hundreds of author interviews I’ve already conducted into new, higher-value, and shorter “Best of…” content for repurposing in different formats. Thank you!
    Roger

  • http://twitter.com/toddwheatland Todd Wheatland

    Wow, makes me dizzy with detail. Great work, Jay – and congratulations on the new show.

    • http://sorryformarketing.com Jay Acunzo

      Thanks Todd. You know what they say — the dizzy is in the details. (Wait…)

  • http://www.camillacarboni.com Camilla Carboni

    Thanks Jay!
    I’ve been doing a lot of reading about Podcasting before expanding to share my Customer-Centric Marketing blog content in new formats, and this is super helpful.
    I also just love that you include the part about the “thank-you note”–too many people seem to get so wrapped up in business that they forget to be human, and I believe that being human is the key to excellent marketing, so thank you for touching on that!
    Camilla Carboni